into leader, rater, and leader by rater interactions, and found that most of the variance in leadership perceptions was indeed associated with the leader (Kenny & Zaccaro, 1983; Zaccaro, Foti, & Kenny, 1991). More recently, Kenney and Livi (2009) analyzed rotation designs from seven studies of short-term ad hoc groups using a procedure that decomposes variance in leadership perceptions into stable and unstable variances that are associated with targets and perceivers. In these analyses, stable variance pertains to effects that generalize across different leadership measures. They found that stable target (leader) effects explained an average of 43% of the variance in lead- ership ratings. In addition, Hall, Lord, and Foster (2009) applied this procedure to groups that had interacted for an extended period of time and defined the stable component as the effects of using the samemeasure atmultiple time periods. Similar to Kenny and Livi, they found that 48% of the variance in leadership perceptions was associated with stable target effects.
This line of research also provides specific examples of the traits and dispositional characteristics that are associated with leader- ship emergence and leadership effectiveness. Judge et al. (2002), for instance, used meta-analytic techniques across 73 independent samples that linked one or more dimensions of the 5-factor model of personality to leadership. This research is notable for its care in distinguishing between leadership emergence (i.e., the perception of being leader-like) and leadership effectiveness (i.e., a leader’s effect on performance). Their results show that individually, extroversion demonstrated the strongest correlation with leadership emergence, which was followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Thus, of the five dimensions, only agreeableness was found to be unrelated to leadership emergence, but all five were related to leadership effectiveness. Additionally, when all five factors were assessed together, they report an overall, multiple correlation of .53 with emergence and .39 with effectiveness — a strong indication of the association between the Big Five dimensions of personality and leadership. Other studies have shown that individuals with high emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, dominance, and cognitive ability were more likely to emerge and be rated as effective leaders over time (Foti & Hauenstein, 2007; Judge, Colbert, & Ilies, 2004; Kellet, Humphrey, & Sleeth, 2002, 2006).
Together, the results noted above show substantiated individual difference effects in leadership perceptions and effectiveness. From an applied and theoretical perspective, dispositional approaches offer parsimony in understanding the relationship between leadership and leader-outcomes, which in turn, have had an enormous influence in leadership selection and developmental prac- tices (Thompson, Grahek, Phillips, & Fay, 2008; Wood & Vilkinas, 2007). Indeed, a dispositional approach implies that leaders should be selected according to their level on certain traits (e.g., high extraversion, low neuroticism).
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