Energy Balance

What Is Energy Balance and What Determines Energy Needs?

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Your BMR is the minimum amount of energy you need to function

Amount needed to meet basic physiological needs, keep you alive

Makes up about 60 percent of total energy needs

Many factors affect BMR, chiefly lean body mass

The thermic effect of food affects your energy needs

Amount of calories expended to digest, absorb, and process food (about 10 percent of calories in food eaten)

Physical activity will increase your energy needs

Energy expended by sedentary people = less than half of BMR

Very active athletes can expend twice BMR

Exercise causes small increase in energy expenditure after activity has stopped

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© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 10.2

Lean Body Mass

Age

Gender

Body Size

Genes

Ethnicity

Stress

Hormones

Environmental Temperatures

Caffeine

Drugs

What Is Energy Balance and What Determines Energy Needs? Factors that influence BMR

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What Is Energy Balance and What Determines Energy Needs?

Calculating your energy needs:

Estimated energy requirement (EER): daily energy need based on age, gender, height, weight, activity level

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Energy Imbalances over Time Can Lead to Changes in Body Weight

Reducing calories can lead to weight loss

Stored glycogen and fat are used as fuel sources

Amino acids from body protein breakdown can be used to make glucose

Prolonged fast depletes all liver glycogen

Ketone bodies generated from incomplete breakdown of fat

Fat stores and about one-third of lean tissue mass depleted in about 60 days

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Excess calories can lead to weight gain

Excess calories are stored as fat, regardless of source

Limited capacity to store glucose as glycogen

Can’t store extra protein

Unlimited capacity to store fat: Body contains about 35 billion fat cells, which can expand

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What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?

Factors in weight management: what and how often you eat, physiology, genetics, environment

Hunger and appetite affect what you eat

Appetite is psychological desire for food

Hunger is physiological need for food; subsides as feeling of satiation sets in. Satiety determines length of time between eating episodes

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Physiological mechanisms help regulate hunger

Many hormones play a role:

Ghrelin: produced in stomach when empty; increases hunger

When fat stores increase, leptin in fat tissue signals brain to decrease hunger and food intake.

Cholecystokinin: released when stomach is distended, increasing feelings of satiation, decreasing hunger

Protein, fatty acids, and monosaccharides in small intestine stimulate feedback to brain to decrease hunger

Insulin also causes brain to decrease hunger

Many people override feedback mechanisms, resulting in energy imbalance

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What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?

Genetics partially determines body weight

Risk of becoming obese doubles if parents are overweight, triples if obese, five times greater if severely obese

Confirmed by studies of identical twins separated at birth Genetic differences in level or function of hormones, such as high ghrelin or low leptin levels, increase obesity

Many obese have adequate leptin, but brain has developed resistance to it

Genetic differences in non-exercise-associated thermogenesis (NEAT): energy expenditure in nonexercise movements, such as fidgeting, standing, chewing gum

“Set point” theory holds that body opposes weight loss and works to maintain a set weight

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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What Factors Are Likely to Affect Body Weight?

Environmental factors can increase appetite and decrease physical activity

Environment of cheap and easily obtainable energy-dense foods stimulates appetite: Gene-environment interaction: increases risk of obesity in some people

We work more and cook less

32 percent of calories come from ready-to-eat foods prepared outside of home

Frequent dining out associated with higher BMI

We eat more (and more)

Increased availability of food-service establishments and access to large variety of foods, larger portions encourage people to eat more

We sit more and move less

Americans are eating about 600 calories/day more than in 1970

Labor-saving devices at work and home, sedentary leisure activities (“screen time”) result in decreased energy expenditure

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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How Can You Lose Weight Healthfully?

National Institutes of Health: overweight individuals should aim to lose about 10 percent of body weight over 6-month period

Example: 180-pound person should lose 18 lb/6 months = 3 lb/month, ¾ lb/week

To lose 1 pound of body fat, need 3,500-calorie deficit

For a weight loss of ½ to 1 lb/week, need to decrease daily calories by 250 to 500 calories

Fad diets promise dramatic results but may carry risks

Eat smart, because calories count: add satiation to low-calorie meals by including higher-volume foods

Eat more vegetables, fruit, and fiber

Include some protein and fat in your meals

Protein increases satiety most

Fat slows movement of food from stomach into intestines

Choose lean meat, skinless chicken, fish, nuts, unsaturated oils

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Three Pieces of the Long-Term Weight-Loss Puzzle

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 10.8

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Adding Volume to Your Meals

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 10.9

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Table 10.3

20

The Volume of Food You Eat

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 10.10

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How Can You Lose Weight Healthfully?

Use MyPlate as a weight-loss guide

High volume of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, some lean protein, modest amounts of fat

Diet should contain variety of foods from all food groups

Replace higher-calorie foods with lower-calorie options from each food group. Example: replace full-fat dairy with nonfat products. Replace sodas with water

Move to lose

45 minutes/day of moderate-intensity activities can prevent becoming overweight and aid in weight loss. 10,000 steps/day can reduce risk of becoming overweight

Break bad habits

Behavior modification: change behaviors that contribute to weight gain or impede weight loss

Techniques include keeping food log, controlling environmental cues that trigger eating, managing stress

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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