How does a cell phone use the electromagnetic spectrum (in waves) through wires, cables or Wi-Fi?

This paper focuses on: How does a cell phone use the electromagnetic spectrum (in waves) through wires, cables or Wi-Fi?

How does a cell phone use the electromagnetic spectrum (in waves) through wires, cables or Wi-Fi?
When making a call on a mobile, the first thing the phone does is search for the nearest signal form the base station antenna of its operator and establish a radio link with it. To receive a call, the principle is the same, except that it is the base station antenna that needs to establish the connection. And in this case, to route the call, the operator needs to know the network cell of the recipient. This is why, when they are switched on and even sometimes when not being used for calls, mobiles ‘report’ to the network – or update their applications (for smartphones) – at regular intervals.

Calling on the move: “handover”
The major advantage of this type of communication is that of being able to make calls on the move. This is no problem when you move a few metres inside the cell to which one is currently connected. But if one moves away from the antenna, the signal weakens and communication may be interrupted. To avoid this, the mobile continuously measures the quality of nearby signals. And during a call, below a certain threshold. It is able to automatically switch the connection to another closer or less-congested antenna of the operator. This jump from cell to cell is called “handover”.

Different technologies used by mobiles
Nowadays, mobile phones primarily use three technologies based on antenna cell networks.

GSM (or 2nd generation mobile telephony – 2G) runs on the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands. 2G offers a limited output at 88 Kb/s for data transmission (SMS, photos, internet, etc.) or 200 Kb/s for EDGE which is the most advanced version. A GSM phone can provide up to a maximum power of 2W during a call, and in the best reception conditions, the power can be a thousand times lower (about 0.001 W).

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