executives extoll to shareholders the profitability of their growth. But growth carries risks. The bubble of some radio supergroups, like Clear Channel, burst due to overexpansion in a bumpy economy. Once having 1,200 stations, Clear Channel has scaled back to 700. What about the quality of programming? Critics say Clear Channel discourages locally produced programs, which are more labor- intensive and therefore less profitable than centralized programming over all its stations. Such formulaic content reduces local communities’ control and the representation of local communities’ issues, concerns, and interests.

Antitrust laws are also a concern in the ongoing development of media mergers. Antitrust laws were passed in an attempt by the U.S. government to stop unfair business practices that would impede open competition, a necessary factor in a free market economy. Antitrust laws are concerned with predatory business practices, so while some mergers are permissible as they are a normal part of the business environment, excessive mergers that limit competition in the market are not permitted under Antitrust laws.

When 21st Century Fox attempted to purchase Time Warner, Inc. for $80 billion in 2014, it would have reduced the number of major Hollywood production companies from a paltry six to only five, and the number of television production companies would have been reduced from five to four. Time Warner, Inc. is already a multinational company, a product of the merger between Time, Inc. and Warner Communication.

The majority opinion in a 1945 Supreme Court antitrust case involving the merging of multiple newspaper publishers and the Associated Press made it clear that the limiting of diversity of information and opinions as a result of media mergers did not have constitutional immunity. Yet in 1983, 50 companies owned 90% of consumer media in the United States, and by 2012 the number of companies was reduced to 6.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent U.S. government agency,is responsible for the regulation and oversight of radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in the United States and its territories. Although the FCC sets limits on the number of broadcast stations an entity can own as well as broadcast ownership of newspapers, several loopholes have allowed the media consolidation witnessed in the last several decades to bypass federal media ownership laws. An example of a loophole involves a media company to create a shell corporation and then sell off some of their stations or newspapers through “covert consolidation” schemes, such as joint sales agreements and other cross-ownership arrangements. According to Free Press, a media advocacy and watchdog group, when consolidation increases, diversity and competition decrease and barriers are raised making it difficult for small media owners to compete for advertising dollars.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

Money-back Guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism Guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision Policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy Policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation Guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more