Directions: Answer the following questions by reviewing the statistical content and applying the algorithm in Figure 12-1 of this exercise (Grove & Cipher, 2020).
1: Discuss the differences between parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques. Provide an example of a parametric statistical technique and a nonparametric statistical technique applying the algorithm in Figure 12-1.
2: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining associations or relationships that had variables measured at the ordinal level and included one group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
3: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining differences that had variables measured at the ratio level and included three independent groups (intervention, placebo, and control)? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on predicting a dependent variable using one independent variable that was measured at the interval/ratio level in a sample of patients with heart failure? Provide a rationale for your answer.
5: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining differences that had variables measured at the ordinal level and included three paired samples or groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6: Study hypothesis: Nurses working in healthcare organizations with magnet status have higher job satisfaction than nurses working in organizations without magnet status. Job satisfaction was measured with a multi-item Likert scale. What statistical technique would researchers probably conduct to test this hypothesis? Provide a rationale for your answer.
7: Lee et al. (2018) examined selective symptoms (dyspnea, anxiety, depression, and fatigue) to predict their contribution to impaired physical
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performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dyspnea was measured with FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and anxiety, depression, and fatigue were measured with multi-item Likert scales. Physical performance was measured with the 6 minute walk test (6MWT), which was the distance patients could walk in six minutes. What is the level of measurement for each of the study variables? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Source: Lee, H., Nguyen, H. Q., Jarrett, M. E., Mitchell, P. H., Pike, K. C., & Fan, V. S. (2018). Effect of Symptoms on physical performance in COPD. Heart & Lung, 47(2), 149–156.
8: The focus of the Lee et al. (2018) study was presented in Question 7. What type of inferential statistical technique did Lee et al. (2018) conduct in their study? Provide a rationale for your answer.
9: Smith and colleagues (2014, p. 68) developed the following question to guide their study: “What are the relationships among the variables of perceived stress, sleep quality, loneliness, and self-esteem among obese young adult women?” The variables were measured with multi-item Likert scales, and the data were considered at the interval level. What inferential statistical technique did these researchers conduct to analyze their study data? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Source: Smith, M. J., Theeke, L., Culp, S., Clark, K., & Pinto, S. (2014). Psychosocial variables and self-rated health in young adult obese women. Applied Nursing Research, 27(1), 67–71.
10: Hersh et al. (2018) conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that examined the effect of the web-based stress management intervention on nurses’ stress. The study included 104 subjects that were randomized into an intervention or control group. Nurses’ stress was measured with the Nursing Stress Scale, a multi-item Likert scale, that provided a total stress score. What inferential statistical technique was conducted to examine the effect of the web-based intervention? Provide rationale for your answer.
Source: Hersch, R. K., Cook, R. F., Deitz, D. K., Kaplan, S., Hughes, D., Friesen, M. A., & Vezina, M. (2016). Reducing Nurses’ stress: A randomized controlled trial of a web-based stress management program for nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 32(1), 18–25.
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