# Parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques

Directions: Answer the following questions by reviewing the statistical content and applying the algorithm in Figure 12-1 of this exercise (Grove & Cipher, 2020).

1: Discuss the differences between parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques. Provide an example of a parametric statistical technique and a nonparametric statistical technique applying the algorithm in Figure 12-1.

2: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining associations or relationships that had variables measured at the ordinal level and included one group? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining differences that had variables measured at the ratio level and included three independent groups (intervention, placebo, and control)? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on predicting a dependent variable using one independent variable that was measured at the interval/ratio level in a sample of patients with heart failure? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5: What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining differences that had variables measured at the ordinal level and included three paired samples or groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6: Study hypothesis: Nurses working in healthcare organizations with magnet status have higher job satisfaction than nurses working in organizations without magnet status. Job satisfaction was measured with a multi-item Likert scale. What statistical technique would researchers probably conduct to test this hypothesis? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7: Lee et al. (2018) examined selective symptoms (dyspnea, anxiety, depression, and fatigue) to predict their contribution to impaired physical

performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dyspnea was measured with FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and anxiety, depression, and fatigue were measured with multi-item Likert scales. Physical performance was measured with the 6 minute walk test (6MWT), which was the distance patients could walk in six minutes. What is the level of measurement for each of the study variables? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Source: Lee, H., Nguyen, H. Q., Jarrett, M. E., Mitchell, P. H., Pike, K. C., & Fan, V. S. (2018). Effect of Symptoms on physical performance in COPD. Heart & Lung, 47(2), 149–156.

8: The focus of the Lee et al. (2018) study was presented in Question 7. What type of inferential statistical technique did Lee et al. (2018) conduct in their study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9: Smith and colleagues (2014, p. 68) developed the following question to guide their study: “What are the relationships among the variables of perceived stress, sleep quality, loneliness, and self-esteem among obese young adult women?” The variables were measured with multi-item Likert scales, and the data were considered at the interval level. What inferential statistical technique did these researchers conduct to analyze their study data? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Source: Smith, M. J., Theeke, L., Culp, S., Clark, K., & Pinto, S. (2014). Psychosocial variables and self-rated health in young adult obese women. Applied Nursing Research, 27(1), 67–71.

10: Hersh et al. (2018) conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that examined the effect of the web-based stress management intervention on nurses’ stress. The study included 104 subjects that were randomized into an intervention or control group. Nurses’ stress was measured with the Nursing Stress Scale, a multi-item Likert scale, that provided a total stress score. What inferential statistical technique was conducted to examine the effect of the web-based intervention? Provide rationale for your answer.

Source: Hersch, R. K., Cook, R. F., Deitz, D. K., Kaplan, S., Hughes, D., Friesen, M. A., & Vezina, M. (2016). Reducing Nurses’ stress: A randomized controlled trial of a web-based stress management program for nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 32(1), 18–25.

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