physical fitness program

What Does a Physical Fitness Program Look Like?

The FITT Principle can help you design a fitness program: frequency, intensity, time, type

Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) measures intensity of cardiorespiratory exercise

Target heart rate shows exercise intensity through heart rate (percentage of maximum)

Repetition maximum (RM) refers to intensity of strength training

Physical Activity Guidelines: 60 minutes/week of moderate-intensity activity for some health benefits

60 to 90 minutes daily to lose weight effectively

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Table 11.2

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Physical Activity Pyramid

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Figure 11.1


Table 11.3

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The progressive overload principle can help improve fitness over time

The body adapts to physical activities, producing fitness plateau

Modify one or more FITT principles to increase exercise and improve fitness


How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Energy during first few minutes of physical activity is provided by anaerobic energy production (without oxygen) from breakdown of:

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Creatine phosphate

Limited amount stored in cells

As exercise continues, oxygen intake and aerobic energy production increase

Carbohydrate (glucose) and fatty acids broken down to yield ATP energy via aerobic metabolism

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Energy Metabolism

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Figure 11.2


The Energy Currency: ATP

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Cori Cycle

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What Fuels Our Activities?

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Figure 11.3


How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Carbohydrate is the primary energy source during high-intensity exercise

Carbohydrate from blood glucose and stored glycogen in muscle and liver: about 2 hours of exercise

Well-trained muscles store 20 to 50 percent more glycogen than untrained muscles

Liver glycogen maintains normal blood glucose

Lactic acid is produced at high exercise intensities and shuttled to other tissues

Used for energy during low-intensity exercise

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Intensity affects how much glucose and glycogen you use

Glucose and glycogen use increases as intensity increases

How much carbohydrate do you need for exercise?

Depends on duration of activity

During and/or after activity: bananas, bagels, corn flakes that are absorbed quickly

2 hours before exercise: rice, oatmeal, pasta, corn enter blood more slowly for sustained energy

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Table 11.4

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Carbohydrate Loading

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Misc 11.5


How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Fat is the primary energy source during low-intensity exercise

Two forms: fatty acids (from triglycerides) in adipose tissue and in muscle tissue

Converting fatty acids into energy is slow and requires more oxygen compared with carbohydrate

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Intensity and training affect how much fat you use

Low-intensity exercise uses mostly fat from adipose tissue

Moderate-intensity exercise also uses fatty acids from muscle triglycerides

Well-trained muscles burn more fat than less trained muscles

Body uses less glycogen and more fat, increases endurance

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

How much fat do you need for exercise?

25 to 30 percent of calories should come from fat

Consume unsaturated fats and limit saturated fat to ≤10 percent of total calories

Too little fat (<20 percent) has nutritional risks

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Fat-burning zone: 65 to 73 percent of maximum heart rate

“Cardio” zone: >73 percent of maximum heart rate

Not necessary to stay in fat-burning zone to lose weight

Need to burn calories to produce overall calorie deficit

High-intensity exercise burns calories more quickly but lower-intensity workout can last longer and achieve more

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Protein is primarily needed to build and repair muscle

Muscle damage results from exercise, especially in weight or strength training

Amino acids needed to promote muscle growth and recovery

Body can use protein for energy but prefers carbohydrate and fat as main energy sources

Amino acids are converted to glucose in liver

Endurance athletes need 1.2 to 1.4 g of protein/kg body weight

Resistance/strength activities: 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg body weight

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Total calorie needs depend on the type and schedule of exercise

Timing of meals affects fitness performance

Optimal food choices vary before, during, and after exercise

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Optimal foods before exercise

Allow adequate time for digestion

Large meal: 3 to 4 hours; smaller meals: 2 to 3 hours; snack or liquid supplement: ½ to 1 hour

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Pre-exercise meal: 1 to 4.5 g carbohydrate/kg body weight, 1 to 4 hours before exercise

Carbohydrate 15 to 30 minutes before gives muscles immediate energy, spares glycogen stores, helps reduce muscle damage

Consuming protein before exercise as well as during exercise increases muscle glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis after exercise is over

High-fat foods should be avoided before exercise: take longer to digest, may cause stomach discomfort and sluggishness

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

Optimal foods during exercise

For exercise >1 hour, begin carbohydrate intake shortly after start and every 15 to 20 minutes

30 to 60 g carbohydrate/hour to avoid fatigue

Glucose, sucrose, maltodextrin are best choices for quick absorption

Avoid fructose, which can cause GI problems

Consuming both carbohydrate and protein is best for muscle maintenance and growth

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How Are Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Used during Exercise?

The best way to get both carbohydrate and protein:

Carbohydrate/protein ratio of 3:1 is ideal to promote muscle glycogen and protein synthesis and faster recovery time

Preferred protein choice: whey protein (in milk) is absorbed rapidly and contains all essential amino acids needed

When consuming small snack or liquid supplement after exercise, should have a high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat meal within 2 hours

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What Vitamins and Minerals Are Important for Fitness?

Vitamins and minerals play major role in metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein for energy during exercise

Some also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from the oxidative stress that can occur with exercise

Antioxidants and cellular damage caused by exercise

Using more oxygen during exercise increases free radicals that damage cells

Supplements of antioxidant vitamins E and C not shown to improve athletic performance or decrease oxidative stress in highly trained athletes

Consume adequate amounts (RDA) from nuts, vegetable oils, broccoli, citrus fruits

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What Vitamins and Minerals Are Important for Fitness?

Some minerals can be of concern in highly active people

Iron: Low iron levels can reduce hemoglobin and blood’s ability to transport oxygen to cells, causing early fatigue during exercise

Female athletes more at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Also long-distance runners, those in “make weight” sports and other sports. Iron-rich foods and iron supplements may be needed

“Sports anemia”: Decreased hemoglobin can result from strenuous training due to increased blood volume: Not same as iron-deficiency anemia and is self-correcting

Calcium: important to reduce risk of bone fractures

Calcium is lost in sweat

Supplements not recommended unless food intake is inadequate

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How Does Fluid Intake Affect Fitness?

Fluid and electrolyte balance and body temperature are affected by exercise

Water is lost through sweat and exhalation

Sodium and chloride, and to a lesser extent potassium, are electrolytes lost in sweat

Electrolyte imbalance can cause heat cramps, nausea, lowered blood pressure, edema

Evaporation of sweat helps cool the body

Hot, humid weather reduces evaporation and body heat increases: increases risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke

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Table 11.5

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You need fluids before, during, and after exercise

The American College of Sports Medicine has specific recommendations for how much fluid to drink before and during exercise


Table 11.6

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BG: Replace; changes.

Some Beverages Are Better Than Others

Sports drinks contain 6 to 8 percent carbohydrate and sodium and potassium: beneficial in long endurance events

For events <60 minutes, water is sufficient to replace fluids, and postexercise food will replace electrolytes

Sports drinks should be avoided as a daily beverage: damage tooth enamel, provide unwanted calories

Not recommended during physical activity: fruit juice (too high carbohydrate concentration); carbonated drinks (bloating); alcohol and caffeine (diuretics, unwanted side effects)

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Sports Drinks Science: Is It Hype?

Discussion Questions:

How does the marketing of products, including product placement, impact sales?

Discuss the problems with the science behind the sports drinks. Discuss whether or not it is ethical for companies to pay for research on their own products.

Identify claims sports drink companies have published that may bend the truth.

Why might sports drinks be unhealthy for your weekend warrior or average gym goer?

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Effects of Dehydration on Exercise Performance

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Figure 11.4

Thirst is not a good indicator of fluid needs for athletes

Acute dehydration: when not adequately hydrated before strenuous exercise

Chronic dehydration: when not adequately hydrated over extended period of time

Fatigue, muscle soreness, poor recovery from workout, headaches, nausea, dark urine

Hyponatremia: low sodium blood levels due to consuming too much water without electrolytes


Can Dietary Supplements Contribute to Fitness?

Dietary supplements are not strictly regulated by FDA

Manufacturers not required to prove safety or efficacy of supplement claims

Dietary supplements and ergogenic aids may improve performance, but can have side effects

Creatine: research data mixed on enhancement of performance. Improves high-intensity, short-duration activities (like weight training) that rely on anaerobic metabolism.

Caffeine enhances athletic performance, mostly during endurance events.

Stimulates central nervous system, breakdown of muscle glycogen, may increase fatty acid availability

Considered a banned substance by some athletic associations

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Can Dietary Supplements Contribute to Fitness?

Anabolic steroids: testosterone-based substances that promote muscle growth and strength (anabolic effect)

Androgenic effect (testosterone-promoting): hormone imbalance causes undesirable side effects in both men and women; also health risks

Growth hormone: little research on effects on athletic performance, results mixed

Reduces body fat but not muscle strength

Excess can cause acromegaly and serious health issues

Erythropoietin and blood doping: to increase oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood

Can increase blood viscosity, increase risk of stroke and heart attack

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Table 11.7

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Table 11.7 (continued)

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Can Dietary Supplements Contribute to Fitness?

Sports bars, shakes, and meal replacers may provide benefits

The main energy source in most sports bars and shakes is carbohydrate, with protein and fat contributing smaller amounts of energy

Convenient alternative, but more expensive than whole foods

Often include vitamins and minerals, which may be unneeded

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Table 11.8

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“No Oven Needed ” Energy Bars

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Figure 11.5

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