piracy and peer-to-peer file sharing

Losses occurred in many ways, including piracy and peer-to-peer file sharing. It took record labels over a decade of battling in court to stem the tide of online piracy, largely because the music industry was in completely new territory in an online environment.

4.1.4 Age of Pixelation 1. Objective: Describe how pixelation is used as the technological base of the


The web technology of the Internet as a transmission platform relies on pixels— thousands of miniscule dots arranged in a matrix to form an image. It’s an intriguing post-Gutenberg process from beginning to end. At the point of origination, the message is captured electronically and broken into thousands of pulses for transmission. The pulses then are reassembled on a device like a home computer,

iPad, or smartphone. For audio, the pulses are updated constantly, so the human ear hears continuous sound.

A typical computer screen is an arrangement of 1,920 of these dots across and 1,080 from top to bottom. In all, the matrix has 499,200 dots, which go by the technical term pixels. The newer Apple laptops boast “Retina display” to describe the clarity in its 2560-by-1600 resolution on the 13-inch MacBook Pro and its 2880-by-1800 resolution on the 15-inch MacBook Pro.

The effect of pixel technology is that users need only a single device to tap into everything. To check the news, you don’t need a newspaper or a television set or a radio receiver—just a single computer screen. A computer laptop, notebook, or tablet will do—or a $50 smartphone. Television shows, movies, and radio programs are accessible through the same device.

Writing Prompt Applying Your Media Literacy—Changing Media Landscape

Mass messages either inform, amuse, or persuade. How does cybermedia change how mass media industries are accomplishing these activities?

The response entered here will appear in the performance dashboard and can be viewed by your instructor.


4.2 New Audience Engagement

Study Preview Most people recognize the profound impact of cybermedia on mass communication and human interactivity. In an attempt to better understand the range of effects, scholars have developed various theories, including push and pull models developed earlier by marketing scholars. Newer theoretical models used to explain the current state of cybermedia and cybercommunication within the context of mass media are helpful, but since this field remains in the middle of significant transition, any theoretical model must be flexible enough to adapt to a rapidly changing environment.

Learning Objectives By the end of this module you will be able to:

  1. 4.2.1 Compare push and pull models of audience engagement
  2. 4.2.2 Evaluate the impact of digital storage
  3. 4.2.3 Determine the relationship between interpersonal and mass communication

4.2.1 Push-Pull Models 1. Objective: Compare push and pull models of audience engagement

With cybermedia, the relationship between media consumers and the media themselves is in fundamental transition, and push-pull models attempt to capture this dynamic.

Push Model. Historically, mass media producers, such as television networks and newspapers, controlled virtually all media content, and media consumers had fewer choices. In 1970, Americans had three choices for their nightly television news: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Most communities had only one daily newspaper whose editors decided what was reported. This was an era of push media. Media programmers, editors, and other so-called gatekeepers determined what made it into the limited number of available media channels, and push that information onto consumers.

Pull Model. Cybermedia platforms, in contrast, have so many channels of information that media consumers now have unprecedented control of their media choices. With cable and satellite delivery, television sometimes is called the 500-channel universe. Online news sites number in the thousands, all accessible everywhere. Pull media also are passive in that they are available whenever consumers want to access them, or pull them in.

There is no need to wait for a weekly newsmagazine or the next morning’s paper for the latest news. Consumers can access news directly by logging on to a news outlet’s website or mobile app, or consumers can access aggregate apps that organize and deliver top news stories. A more recent option is a streaming device, such as Amazon’s Echo, that can deliver a range of topical news stories upon the user’s command “what’s going on today?”

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