reconstruction of a leadership prototype

It is important to note that although the reconstruction of a leadership prototype may exhibit variability when different con- textual cues cause different network activation patterns to emerge, leadership prototypes may also exhibit stability within a par- ticular kind of event as familiar perceptual cues are experienced. This concept is represented in Fig. 2, which shows how different events can activate different identities, self-regulatory structures, goals, and affect, as indicated as shaded nodes. This configura- tion of nodes can in turn, activate different leadership prototypes which influence leadership perceptions. Thus, Fig. 2 connects both intrapersonal perceptual processes and interpersonal leadership emergence processes. It also illustrates in a more concrete way how path b in Fig. 1 can change with events.

Such a model suggests that paying attention to differences in the way that leadership perceptions are reconstructed helps ex- plain why the same individual may be perceived as a leader in one type of situation or event, but not in the next due to the changes in the patterning of a perceiver’s leadership prototype. The sensitivity of perceiver perceptual constructs to context also explains why perceivers might endorse different kinds of leaders as events or situations change (Sy et al., 2010), allowing for more flexible, adaptive social dynamics. This idea complements the value of process views of traits in explaining the flexibility in generating leadership behavior as shown in Fig. 3. The critical difference however, is that the former perceptual example of leader emergence is an effect external to the potential leader, whereas, the latter behavioral effect is internal to the leader (i.e., how path a in Fig. 1 could change with different events).

655J.E. Dinh, R.G. Lord / The Leadership Quarterly 23 (2012) 651–669

4.2. Moderators and their effects on effectiveness

The relationship between leadership behavior and effectiveness is also likely to be moderated by many factors. This is because leaders are embedded within the context of the task and organizational system (Zaccaro et al., 2004), and as such, are affected by the events that occur within their organizational environment. These situational effects have long been recognized in the leader- ship field as “contingency effects” (Fiedler, 1964; Kerr, Schriesheim, Murphy, & Stogdill, 1974), which refers to the idea that the

Input

Event

Input Source

Prototype Matching Determines Emergent Leader

Prototypical Leadership

Traits

E2

Leader Follower Beh. Input

1 32 4

E1

Leader Follower Beh. Input

V1 V1

V2 V2

V4

Ind Rel

Col

PA NA

1 32 4

Dom Ext Dec Int Mas Flx

L1 F1 F2 B1 B2L2 L1 F1 F2 B1 B2L2

V3V3

Go1Go1

Go2Go2

Ind Rel

Col

PA NA

Dom Ext Dec Int Mas Flx

Identity (Individual, Relational,

Collective)

Values

Affect

Goal Orientation

V4

Fig. 2. Activation of leader prototypes (dominance, extroversion, decisive, intelligent, masculine, and flexible) from behavioral input and contextual constraints within a multilevel connectionist network for different events. (Activated nodes are shaded in gray).

Performance Level

Input

Input Source

Identity (Individual, Relational,

Collective)

E1

Org Groups Self

O1 O2 G1 G2 S1 S2

Ind Rel

Col

E2

Org Groups Self

O1 O2 G1 G2 S1 S2

V1

V2

V3

V4

Event

V1

V2

V3

V4

Go1

Go2

Go3

Ind Rel

Col

PA NA

Go1

Go2

Go3

PA NA

L1 L2 L3 L4 L1 L2 L3 L4

Values

Affect

Goal Orientation

Fig. 3. Activation of dynamic intrapersonal structures from varied contextual cues within multilevel connectionist networks influences leader performance levels. (Activated nodes are shaded in gray).

656 J.E. Dinh, R.G. Lord / The Leadership Quarterly 23 (2012) 651–669

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