rise of rap to that of other music genres

As trans formative as rock was, so, too, was rap, 40 years later. Originating in the public housing projects of the Bronx in New York City, this new style of music had an intense bass beat for dancing and rhyming riffs, often with strong and rapid-fire lyrics. Slowly, rap spread to other black urban areas. Run-DMC and King of Rock, both from small independent studios, were the first black rap albums to break into the U.S. music mainstream. Major record companies soon signed rap acts. Violence and racism were at the heart of Public Enemy’s and N.W.A.’s music, and their lyrics became a source of controversy in the 1990s. Despite this, rap artists and groups won over a wide and devoted fan base.

As with rock ‘n’ roll, major labels were slow to embrace rap and only signed its artists after their lyrics caught on and sales of other pop genres dipped. This resembled practices in the film and other media industries, where producers don’t take risks with new, untested content and formats unless they are sure that doing so will result in

higher profits.

Writing Prompt Apply Your Media Literacy: Music

Innovative new musicians have a tough time breaking into the record industry. That’s why some artists have chosen to strike out on their own and use YouTube and social media to introduce their songs to potential audiences. Can you think of any successful artists whose online presence was the catalyst for their fame?

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7.4 Sports as Media Entertainment

Study Preview Early on, mass media innovators sensed the potential of sports to build their audiences, first through newspapers, then magazines, radio, and television. The media have fed on what seems an insatiable demand for more sports. Why the huge public intrigues with sports? One expert suggests it’s the mix of suspense, heroes, villains, pageantry, and ritual.

Learning Objectives By the end of this module you will be able to:

  1. 7.4.1 Explain how mass media popularized sports in the early 1900s
  2. 7.4.2 Identify marketing elements of the sports genre
  3. 7.4.3 Evaluate the business relationship between television and sports

7.4.1 Mass Audience for Sports 1. Objective: Explain how mass media popularized sports in the early 1900s

Newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett sensed how public interest in sports could build circulation for his New York Herald in the 1830s and assigned reporters to regularly cover sports. Fifty years later, with growing interest in horse racing, prizefighting, yacht racing, and baseball, Joseph Pulitzer organized the first separate sports department at his New York World. Sportswriters developed special areas of expertise.

Audience appetite for sports was insatiable. For the 1897 Corbett-Fitzsimmons heavyweight title fight in remote Nevada, dozens of writers showed up. The New York Times introduced celebrity coverage in 1910 when it hired retired prizefighter John L. Sullivan to cover the Jeffries–Johnson title bout in Reno.

Sports historians call the 1920s the Golden Era of Sports, with newspapers glorifying athletes. Some athletes, including Jack Dempsey in boxing, Knute Rockne and Jim Thorpe in football, and Babe Ruth in baseball, were considered heroes. Later, radio became a prime medium for sports. In 1921, KDKA of Pittsburgh carried the first play-by-play baseball game and the entire World Series, live from New York as reported by pre-eminent sportswriter Grant land Rice. Radio also brought the Davis Cup tennis matches and the Johnny Ray versus John Dundee fight into homes across America.

Sports magazines began in 1829 with American Turf Register, which lasted for 15 years. Nearly 50 years later, The American Bicycling Journal covered a short-lived bicycling craze. Fast forward to 1954, when magazine magnate Henry Luce launched Sports Illustrated. From a base of 350,000 charter subscribers, its circulation exploded to about 3.5 million a week, with a weekly overall readership of 23 million.

Although television dabbled in sports from its early days, the introduction of Wide World of Sports in 1961 underscored the close relationship between the genre and the medium. ABC programming guru Roone Arledge created a show that bounced from ping-pong to skiing with a diverse staff of commentators. Of course, the professional leagues had to agree to commercial breaks and attempt to make games more dramatic and exciting for audiences.

The launching of ESPN as an all-sports network prompted millions of households to subscribe to cable. Disney acquired ESPN as a result of its purchase of Capital Cities/ABC, a move it announced in 1985. The success of ESPN spawned sibling and regional sports networks, including many created by Fox as major revenue centers.

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