Socio-demographics features of the research population

Infection prevention is amongst the challenges faced in many healthcare institutions in the entire world. This study assessed the knowledge, practice, and associated factors aimed at reducing or preventing healthcare-acquired infections among healthcare workers. In this particular study, a total of 250 healthcare professionals were interviewed and yields a response rate of 95 percent majorities. There were many individuals i.e. 150 (60 percent) were in the age bracket of 26 to 3o years old. The majority of the respondents were from Orthodox Christianity at 72 percent of the population. A higher percentage of the individuals who participated in this study was diploma holders at 40 percent (100 participants).

Overall, based on this particular study, it is clear that the majority of healthcare providers were knowledgeable about the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Many of these healthcare providers were having sufficient knowledge required to make a contribution towards helping in reducing healthcare-acquired infections. This study, therefore, shows that the outcomes are in line with many other research works which have shown that healthcare providers are knowledgeable enough to help in the prevention of infection; nevertheless, the issue of controlling or preventing such infection is affected by the attitudes or the socio-demographic factors or lack of adequate resources to accomplish this mission.

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Variable Frequency Percentage
Age 20 to 25 80 32%
26 to 30 150 60%
Over 31 years 20 8%
Sex Male 150 60%
Female 100 40%
Marital Status Single 140 56 %
Married 110 44%
Religion Muslim 30 12%
Orthodox 180 72%
Protestant 40 16%
Educational Status Master and Above 80 32 %
Bachelors 70 28 %
Diploma 100 40 %
Work Experience Over five years 170 68%
5 to 10 years 70 28%
Over 10 years 10 4%
Profession Physician 30 12%
Nurse 82 32.8%
Midwifery 60 24%
Health officials 18 7.2%
Laboratory Technician 40 16%
Other healthcare providers 20 8%
Involved in the training Yes 90 36%
No 160 64%
There is availability of IP guideline Yes 100 40%
No 150 60%

Knowledge concerning the infection prevention

In this particular study, a total of 220 (88 percent) and 210 (84 percent) believed that healthcare-acquired infections are prevented using disinfection and antiseptic respectively. A total of 190 respondents (76 percent) believed that equipment requires the process of decontamination prior to the sterilization procedure. More than half of the participants (56 percent) are not well informed regarding the [preparation of 0.5 percent of chlorine solution.

Variables The level of knowledge Frequency
Disinfection is helpful in the prevention of the acquired infections Ye 220 88 %
No 30 12%
Antiseptic is helping in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection Yes 210 84%
No 40 16%
The is sterilization of the equipment using chemical Yes 100 40%
No 150 60 %
There is physical sterilization of equipment through the use of heat and radiation occasionally Yes 70 28 %
No 180 72%
All pathogens are destroyed through autoclaving Yes 170 68%
No 80 32%
There is a decontamination of equipment before the sterilization process Yes 190 76%
No 60 24%
Protective devices are important when it comes to the reduction of the infections Yes 185 74%
No 65 26%
Wearing of gloves is used as a replacement of hand washing Yes 90 64%
No 160 36%
There is a preparation of o.5 percent chlorine solution Yes 110 44%
No 140 56%
There is the use of PEP for HIV after being exposed to blood Yes 230 92%
No 20 8%

The practice of healthcare providers in an effort to prevent healthcare-acquired infections

In this particular study, the percentages of the healthcare providers believed it was important to wash hand before starting to provide healthcare and after completion of healthcare provision were 140 (56 percent) and 200 (80 percent) respectively. There was almost equal proportional with regard to the number of respondents who said there is use of soap to wash the hands before patient care i.e. 120 (48 percent) and the individuals who believed that there was no washing of the hands after provision of healthcare services i.e. 130 (52 percent) based on the responses given by the study participants, majority of the respondents believe that there is no use of any type of protective equipment such as mask, gloves, and gowns among others. Only 42 participants (16.8) believed that there is the use of personal protective equipment.

The length of working experience is associated with the knowledge score based on the outcome of this study. According to the result of the study, healthcare providers who have been in the medical field for not less than ten years are more likely to be knowledgeable about the issues related to the prevention programs. The increase in the knowledge in relation to the number of experience is likely to be related to the increase in the number of years of practice which increases exposure to different healthcare settings. Such healthcare providers are exposed repeatedly and are becoming more experienced through interacting and taking part in working with senior healthcare providers.

Variable Response Figures Frequency
There is washing of the hands using soap before prior to the start of healthcare Yes 140 56%
No 110 44%
There is a habit of washing hand using soap after providing care to the patient Yes 200 80 %
No 50 20%
There is washing of the hands without soap prior to or after patient care Yes 120 48%
No 130 52 %
There is the use of all categories of personal protective equipment Ye 42 16.8
No 208 83.2

Aspects related to the knowledge of the healthcare professionals regarding the issue of preventing healthcare-acquired infections

Some of the major factors which were associated with the knowledge in relation to the healthcare-acquired prevention included age, education attainment, the work experience of the healthcare providers, sex of the respondents, profession, and training received in relation to the techniques used in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare providers who are over 31 years were three times more knowledgeable as compared to individuals or healthcare providers whose age bracket was 21 to 25 years. Male healthcare employees were twice likely to be more knowledgeable as compared to their female counterparts.

This study also reveals that the working experience strongly influenced the practices towards prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. Individuals with experience of more than ten years of work within healthcare sector were four times likely to possess the knowledge required to help in the control or prevention of healthcare-acquired infections as compared to individuals or healthcare provider who had work experience of fewer than five years in the field of healthcare.

This study also indicates that the level of education greatly impacted on the knowledge acquired to help in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections. In this case, healthcare providers whose education level was in the Master level or above Masters level were more knowledgeable as compared to other levels of education i.e. Bachelors and Diploma. Healthcare providers with a master level of education were thrice more likely to be knowledgeable about the issues related to healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare workers with Bachelor level of education were twice more likely to be more knowledgeable as compared to the healthcare providers who had a diploma level of education.

The infection training program is also playing an important role in increasing the level of experience and knowledge required to help in the reduction of healthcare-acquired infections. Healthcare providers who have not yet received training on the techniques required towards prevention and control of healthcare-acquired infections are less knowledgeable about the infection prevention as compared to those who had undergone through the training program related to the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection. The result from this study indicating that healthcare providers with higher education appear to be having more knowledge score as compared to the low educational level is an indication that these healthcare providers have acquired more educational information related to the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections.

Limitation of the study

Healthcare-acquired infections are considered to be a very broad topic, therefore, it has not been possible to cover all aspects of the healthcare-acquired infections in this one research paper. This, therefore, implies that I have been selective in choosing the major factors in the present argument with regard to the healthcare-acquired infections which is causing major concern in the public healthcare sector. Another limitation of this study is that it was restricted to a specific healthcare facility.

This, therefore, implies that it does not reveal the real situation in the entire world, however, it shows that the clear picture of what is happening in a major healthcare facility in relation to the lack of knowledge, poor practices, and other factors such as socio-demographic aspects. These factors are considered to be playing a major important role in with regard to the issue of healthcare-acquired infections. Another limitation in this study is that it was specifically restricted to the healthcare providers as the key individuals who are playing a role in the increase in the reduction or increase in the healthcare-acquired infections. Even though patients are contributing to the spread of healthcare-acquired infections this study was mainly focused on the healthcare providers as the major key players that can be targeted with policies aimed at controlling healthcare-acquired infection in many healthcare facilities.

References

Batran, A., Ayed, A., Salameh, B., Ayoub, M., & Fasfous, A. (2018). Are standard precautions for hospital-acquired infection among nurses in the public sector satisfactory? AMHS , 6 (2), 223-227. Desta, M., Ayenew, T., Sitotaw, N., Tegegne, N., Dires, M., & Getie, M. (2018). Knowledge, practice and associated factors of infection prevention among healthcare workers in Debre Markos referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Health Serv Res, 18, 465. Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Bakar, A. M. (2018). Healthcare-associated infections – an overview. Infection Drug Resist, 11, 2321-2333. Imad, F., Ayed, A., Faeda, E., & Lubna, H. (2015). Knowledge and Practice of Nursing Staff towards Infection Control Measures in the Palestinian Hospitals. ERIC, 6 (4), 79-90. Jahangir, M., Ali, M., & Riaz, M. S. (2017). Knowledge and Practices of Nurses Regarding Spread of Nosocomial Infection In government Hospitals, Lahore. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci, 16 (3), 149-153. Moyo, G. (2013). Factors influencing compliance with infection prevention standard precautions among nurses working at Mbagathi district hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi. Stone, P. (2017). Economic burden of healthcare-associated infections: an American perspective. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res, 9 (5), 417-422. Teshager, A. F., Engeda, H. E., & Worku, W. Z. (2015). Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors towards Prevention of Surgical Site Infection among Nurses Working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Surgery Research and Practice.

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