The Media of Mass Communication

John Vivian

Winona State University

330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Vivian, John author.

Title: The media of mass communication / John Vivian, Winona State University.

Description: Boston : Pearson, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016025354 | ISBN 9780133931211 | ISBN 0133931218

Subjects: LCSH: Mass media. | Mass media—Technological innovations. | Mass media—Social aspects. | Communication—Technological innovations. | Mass media and culture.

Classification: LCC P90 .V53 2017 | DDC 302.23–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016025354

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Books a la Carte

ISBN-10: 0-13-393121-8

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-393121-1

Brief Contents 1. 1 Mass Media Literacy 1

  1. 2 Media Technology 16
  2. 3 Media Economics 39
  3. 4 Cybermedia 59
  4. 5 Legacy Media 75
  5. 6 News 98
  6. 7 Entertainment 119
  7. 8 Public Relations 136
  8. 9 Advertising 152
  9. 10 Mass Audiences 172
  10. 11 Mass Media Effects 190
  11. 12 Governance and Mass Media 209
  12. 13 Global Mass Media 227
  13. 14 Mass Media Law 245
  14. 15 Mass Media Ethics 258

Contents 1. Preface xi

  1. About the Author xv
  2. 1 Mass Media Literacy 1
  3. 1.1 Media Exposure 2
  4. 1.1.1 Media Usage 3
  5. 1.1.2 Concurrent Media Usage 3
  6. 1.1.3 Inescapable Symbiosis 3
  7. 1.1.4 Being an Empowered Media Consumer 4
  8. 1.2 Purposeful Mass Communication 4
  9. 1.2.1 To Inform 4
  10. 1.2.2 To Persuade 5
  11. 1.2.3 To Entertain 5
  12. 1.2.4 To Enlighten 6
  13. 1.2.5 Overlapping Purposes 6
  14. 1.3 Mediated Communication 7
  15. 1.3.1 Traditional Forms of Communication 7
  16. 1.3.2 Communication Through Mass Media 7
  17. 1.3.3 Communication Through Social Media 9
  18. 1.4 Literacy for Media Consumers 10
  19. 1.4.1 Linguistic Literacy 10
  20. 1.4.2 Visual Literacy 11
  21. 1.4.3 Film Literacy 12
  22. 1.5 Assessing Media Messages 13
  23. 1.5.1 Fundamentals of Media Literacy 13
  24. 1.5.2 Spheres of Media Literacy 14
  25. Summary: Mass Media Literacy 15
  26. 2 Media Technology 16
  27. 2.1 Media Technology 18
  28. 2.1.1 Technology Dependence 18
  29. 2.1.2 Evolving Media Landscape 18
  30. 2.2 Printing Technology 20
  31. 2.2.1 Movable Metal Type 20
  32. 2.2.2 Gutenberg’s Impact 21
  33. 2.2.3 Industrial Revolution Effects 22
  34. 2.2.4 Print–Visual Integration 22
  35. 2.3 Chemical Technology 23
  36. 2.3.1 Photography 23
  37. 2.3.2 Movies 24
  38. 2.4 Electrical Technology 25
  39. 2.4.1 Electricity as Transformational 25
  40. 2.4.2 Recording 26
  41. 2.4.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum 26
  42. 2.5 Current Technologies 28
  43. 2.5.1 Orbiting Satellites 28
  44. 2.5.2 Back to Wires 29
  45. 2.5.3 Semiconductor 30
  46. 2.5.4 Internet Originals 30
  47. 2.5.5 Media Convergence 31
  48. 2.5.6 Media Architecture 33
  49. 2.5.7 Internet-Delivered Communication 34
  50. 2.6 Technology and Mass Communication 34
  51. 2.6.1 Lasswell Model 34
  52. 2.6.2 Values and Limitations of Models 35
  53. 2.6.3 Concentric Circle Model of Communication 35
  54. 2.6.4 21st-Century Models 36
  55. Summary: Media Technology 38
  56. 3 Media Economics 39
  57. 3.1 Financial Foundations 40
  58. 3.1.1 Capitalism 40
  59. 3.1.2 Revenue Streams 40
  60. 3.1.3 Investors 42
  61. 3.2 Ownership Structures 43
  62. 3.2.1 Conglomerate Dominance 44
  63. 3.2.2 Conglomerate Behavior 46
  64. 3.2.3 Divestiture 46
  65. 3.3 Media Economic Patterns 46
  66. 3.3.1 Invention 47
  67. 3.3.2 Entrepreneurship 47
  68. 3.3.3 Industry 49
  69. 3.3.4 Maturation 49
  70. 3.3.5 Denial 49
  71. 3.4 Rethinking Media Ownership 52
  72. 3.4.1 Ownership Alternatives 52
  73. 3.4.2 University Media Generators 54
  74. 3.4.3 Family Ownership 54
  75. 3.5 Funding Alternatives 55
  76. 3.5.1 Government Role 55
  77. 3.5.2 Government Issues 56
  78. 3.5.3 Philanthropy 56
  79. 3.5.4 Fund Drives 56
  80. 3.6 New Media Funding 57
  81. 3.6.1 Advertising and Subscriptions 57
  82. 3.6.2 Hybrid Mix 57
  83. Summary: Media Economics 57
  84. 4 Cybermedia 59
  85. 4.1 Changing Media Landscape 60
  86. 4.1.1 Media Convergence 60
  87. 4.1.2 Delivery Platforms 61
  88. 4.1.3 Industry Realignments 61
  89. 4.1.4 Age of Pixelation 62
  90. 4.2 New Audience Engagement 62
  91. 4.2.1 Push–Pull Models 62
  92. 4.2.2 Limitless Archiving 63
  93. 4.2.3 Interactivity 64
  94. 4.3 Jobs’ Historical Model 64
  95. 4.3.1 Computer Revolution 65
  96. 4.3.2 Internet Revolution 65
  97. 4.3.3 Digital Lifestyle 65
  98. 4.4 User-Generated Content 66
  99. 4.4.1 Blogging 66
  100. 4.4.2 Social Networking 67
  101. 4.4.3 Messaging 69
  102. 4.4.4 Texting 70
  103. 4.5 Online Commerce 71
  104. 4.5.1 Sales Sites 71
  105. 4.5.2 Product Downloads and Streaming 72
  106. 4.6 Online Dominance 72
  107. 4.6.1 Assessing Target Audiences 73
  108. 4.6.2 Behavioral Targeting 73
  109. Summary: Cybermedia 74
  110. 5 Legacy Media 75
  111. 5.1 Mass Media as Industries 76
  112. 5.1.1 Legacy Industries 76
  113. 5.1.2 Transformation of Print Industries 77
  114. 5.2 Business Models 78
  115. 5.2.1 The Business of Newspapers 78
  116. 5.2.2 Organization of Media Industries 78
  117. 5.3 Ink-on-Paper Industries 79
  118. 5.3.1 Newspapers 79
  119. 5.3.2 Magazines 81
  120. 5.3.3 Books 82
  121. 5.4 Sound Media Industries 85
  122. 5.4.1 Recording 85
  123. 5.4.2 Intellectual Property Issues 85
  124. 5.4.3 Radio 87
  125. 5.5 Motion Media Industries 89
  126. 5.5.1 Movies 89
  127. 5.5.2 Television 91
  128. 5.5.3 Movie–Television Meld 94
  129. 5.5.4 Strength through Trade Groups 94
  130. 5.6 Platform-Neutral Future 96
  131. 5.6.1 Legacy Media under Siege 96
  132. 5.6.2 Legacy Media Prospects 96
  133. Summary: Legacy Media 97
  134. 6 News 98
  135. 6.1 Concept of News 99
  136. 6.1.1 News as Change 99
  137. 6.1.2 Newsworthiness 99
  138. 6.2 Bennett News Model 100
  139. 6.2.1 James Gordon Bennett 100
  140. 6.2.2 Bennett Model Components 101
  141. 6.2.3 Bennett Model Flaws 102
  142. 6.3 Rethinking News Models 105
  143. 6.3.1 Hutchins Model 105
  144. 6.3.2 Changing News Dynamics 105
  145. 6.3.3 New Platforms and Dynamics 106
  146. 6.3.4 Hybrid News Models 106
  147. 6.4 Values That Shape News 107
  148. 6.4.1 News Judgment 108
  149. 6.4.2 Personal Values 108
  150. 6.5 Variables Affecting News 109
  151. 6.5.1 News Hole 109
  152. 6.5.2 News Flow 110
  153. 6.5.3 News Staffing 110
  154. 6.5.4 Audience Expectations 111
  155. 6.5.5 Competition 112
  156. 6.6 Journalism Trends 113
  157. 6.6.1 Newsrooms in Transition 114
  158. 6.6.2 Nonstop Coverage 115
  159. 6.6.3 Live News 115
  160. 6.6.4 Exploratory Reporting 116
  161. 6.6.5 Soft News 117
  162. Summary: News 118
  163. 7 Entertainment 119
  164. 7.1 Mediation of Entertainment 120
  165. 7.1.1 Entertainment as Mass Media 120
  166. 7.1.2 Technology-Driven Entertainment 121
  167. 7.1.3 Authentic and Mediated Performance 122
  168. 7.2 Storytelling 123
  169. 7.2.1 Genres of Literature 123
  170. 7.2.2 Media-Defined Trends 123
  171. 7.3 Music 124
  172. 7.3.1 Transformative Effect on Culture 124
  173. 7.3.2 Rockabilly Revolution 125
  174. 7.3.3 Rock ‘n’ Roll 126
  175. 7.3.4 Music of Dissent 126
  176. 7.3.5 Rise of Rap 127
  177. 7.4 Sports as Media Entertainment 127
  178. 7.4.1 Mass Audience for Sports 127
  179. 7.4.2 Audience and Advertiser Confluence 128
  180. 7.4.3 Televised Sports 128
  181. 7.5 Sex as Media Content 129
  182. 7.5.1 Adult Entertainment 129
  183. 7.5.2 Decency Requirements 130
  184. 7.5.3 Sexual Content and Children 130
  185. 7.6 Artistic Values 131
  186. 7.6.1 Media Content as High Art 131
  187. 7.6.2 “High,” “Low,” “Greater,” and “Lesser” (Not Really) Art 132
  188. 7.6.3 Evaluating a Range of Media Content 133
  189. 7.6.4 Pop Art Revisionism 134
  190. Summary: Entertainment 134
  191. 8 Public Relations 136
  192. 8.1 Public Relations Scope 136
  193. 8.1.1 Public Relations Industry 137
  194. 8.1.2 The Work of Public Relations 137
  195. 8.2 Public Relations in Context 138
  196. 8.2.1 Public Relations and Advertising 139
  197. 8.2.2 Public Relations in News 139
  198. 8.3 Roots of Public Relations 140
  199. 8.3.1 Social Darwinism 140
  200. 8.3.2 Ivy Lee 141
  201. 8.3.3 Public Relations on a Massive Scale 142
  202. 8.3.4 Corporate Public Relations 143
  203. 8.4 Public Relations as Strategy 143
  204. 8.4.1 Strategic Communication 144
  205. 8.4.2 Integrated Marketing 144
  206. 8.5 Public Relations Tactics 144
  207. 8.5.1 Promotion 144
  208. 8.5.2 Image Management 145
  209. 8.5.3 Crisis Management 146
  210. 8.6 Contingency Planning 147
  211. 8.6.1 Advocacy 147
  212. 8.6.2 Tarnished Image 149
  213. 8.6.3 Ethics: Standards and Certification 150
  214. Summary: Public Relations 151
  215. 9 Advertising 152
  216. 9.1 Importance of Advertising 153
  217. 9.1.1 Consumer Economies 153
  218. 9.1.2 Advertising and Prosperity 153
  219. 9.1.3 Advertising and Democracy 154
  220. 9.2 Origins of Advertising 155
  221. 9.2.1 First Advertisements 155
  222. 9.2.2 Technology Dependence 155
  223. 9.2.3 The Creative Revolution 156
  224. 9.3 Advertising Agencies 158
  225. 9.3.1 Pioneer Agencies 158
  226. 9.3.2 Agency Compensation 158
  227. 9.4 Media Plans 159
  228. 9.4.1 Campaigns and Placement 159
  229. 9.4.2 Online Placement and Virtual Marketing 161
  230. 9.5 Brand Strategies 161
  231. 9.5.1 Brand Names 162
  232. 9.5.2 Brand Images 162
  233. 9.5.3 Brand Types 164
  234. 9.6 Advertising Tactics 165
  235. 9.6.1 Lowest Common Denominator 165
  236. 9.6.2 Redundancy Techniques 166
  237. 9.6.3 Testimonials 166
  238. 9.6.4 Addressing Ad Clutter 167
  239. 9.6.5 Buzz Advertising 167
  240. Summary: Advertising 171
  241. 10 Mass Audiences 172
  242. 10.1 Discovering Mass Audiences 173
  243. 10.1.1 Audience Research Evolution 173
  244. 10.1.2 Survey Industry 173
  245. 10.2 Audience Measurement Principles 175
  246. 10.2.1 Probability Sampling 175
  247. 10.2.2 Quota Sampling 177
  248. 10.2.3 Evaluating Surveys 177
  249. 10.2.4 Latter-Day Straw Polls 178
  250. 10.3 Measuring Audience Size 179
  251. 10.3.1 Newspaper and Magazine Audits 179
  252. 10.3.2 Broadcast Ratings 179
  253. 10.3.3 Criticism of Ratings 180
  254. 10.3.4 Engagement Ratings 181
  255. 10.4 Audience Measurement Techniques 181
  256. 10.4.1 Basic Tools 182
  257. 10.4.2 Internet Audience Measures 183
  258. 10.4.3 Mobile Audience Measures 184
  259. 10.5 Measuring Audience Reaction 185
  260. 10.5.1 Focus Groups 185
  261. 10.5.2 Galvanic Skin Checks 185
  262. 10.5.3 Prototype Research 186
  263. 10.6 Audience Analysis 187
  264. 10.6.1 Demographics 187
  265. 10.6.2 Cohort Analysis 187
  266. 10.6.3 Geodemographics 188
  267. 10.6.4 Psychographics 188
  268. Summary: Media Audiences 189
  269. 11 Mass Media Effects 190
  270. 11.1 Effects Theories 191
  271. 11.1.1 Bullet Model 191
  272. 11.1.2 Minimalist Model 191
  273. 11.1.3 Cumulative Model 192
  274. 11.2 Lifestyle Effects 192
  275. 11.2.1 Socialization 193
  276. 11.2.2 Living Patterns 193
  277. 11.2.3 Intergenerational Eavesdropping 194
  278. 11.3 Attitude Effects 194
  279. 11.3.1 Influencing Opinion 195
  280. 11.3.2 Role Models 195
  281. 11.3.3 Stereotypes 196
  282. 11.4 Cultural Effects 196
  283. 11.4.1 Historical Transmission of Values 197
  284. 11.4.2 Contemporary Transmission of Values 197
  285. 11.4.3 Cultural Imperialism 198
  286. 11.5 Behavioral Effects 201
  287. 11.5.1 Motivational Messages 201
  288. 11.5.2 Subliminal Messages 201
  289. 11.6 Media-Depicted Violence 202
  290. 11.6.1 Learning About Violence 202
  291. 11.6.2 Media Violence as Positive 203
  292. 11.6.3 Media Violence as Negative 203
  293. 11.6.4 Catalytic Model 204
  294. 11.6.5 Societally Debilitating Effects 205
  295. 11.6.6 Media Violence and Youth 205
  296. 11.6.7 Tolerance of Violence 206
  297. Summary: Mass Media Effects 207
  298. 12 Governance and Mass Media 209
  299. 12.1 Media-Governance Structure 210
  300. 12.1.1 Fourth Estate 210
  301. 12.1.2 Watchdog Function 211
  302. 12.2 Media–Government Tension 212
  303. 12.2.1 Media Influence on Governance 212
  304. 12.2.2 News Coverage of Government 214
  305. 12.2.3 Media Obsessions 215
  306. 12.3 Government Manipulation 217
  307. 12.3.1 Influencing Coverage 217
  308. 12.3.2 Trial Balloons and Leaks 218
  309. 12.3.3 Stonewalling 219
  310. 12.4 Political Campaigns 220
  311. 12.4.1 Cyclical Coverage 220
  312. 12.4.2 Tracking Polls 220
  313. 12.4.3 Role of Commentary 220
  314. 12.5 Courting Campaign Coverage 221
  315. 12.5.1 Campaign Tactics 222
  316. 12.5.2 Creating Coverage Opportunities 222
  317. 12.5.3 Limiting Access 223
  318. 12.6 Campaign Messages 223
  319. 12.6.1 Message Strategies 223
  320. 12.6.2 Precision Targeting 224
  321. Summary: Governance and Mass Media 225
  322. 13 Global Mass Media 227
  323. 13.1 Mass Media and Nation-States 228
  324. 13.1.1 Authoritarianism 228
  325. 13.1.2 Libertarianism 230
  326. 13.2 War as a Libertarian Test 232
  327. 13.2.1 Combat Reporting 233
  328. 13.2.2 Embedded Reporters 233
  329. 13.3 Online Global Reform 234
  330. 13.3.1 Whither Nation-States 234
  331. 13.3.2 Whither Mega-Corporations 236
  332. 13.4 Trans-Border Soft Diplomacy 237
  333. 13.4.1 Afghanistan Media-Building 237
  334. 13.4.2 Trans-Border Propaganda 238
  335. 13.4.3 Voice of America 239
  336. 13.4.4 Trans-Border Blockages 239
  337. 13.5 Arab Media Systems 240
  338. 13.5.1 Diverse Media Structures 240
  339. 13.5.2 Al-Jazeera 240
  340. 13.5.3 Media as Totalitarian Tool 241
  341. 13.5.4 Dubai Media Incorporated 241
  342. 13.6 China Media 242
  343. 13.6.1 Chinese Policy 242
  344. 13.6.2 Chinese Censorship 243
  345. Summary: Global Mass Media 243
  346. 14 Mass Media Law 245
  347. 14.1 Censorship 246
  348. 14.1.1 Free Expression 246
  349. 14.1.2 First Amendment in Context 247
  350. 14.1.3 Common Sense and First Amendment 247
  351. 14.1.4 Incitement Standard 247
  352. 14.2 First Amendment Expansionism 249
  353. 14.2.1 Literature and First Amendment 249
  354. 14.2.2 Amusement and First Amendment 250
  355. 14.2.3 Emotive Speech 250
  356. 14.2.4 Hate Speech 250
  357. 14.2.5 Expressive Speech 250
  358. 14.3 Government Regulation 251
  359. 14.3.1 Federal Communications Commission 251
  360. 14.3.2 Federal Trade Commission 251
  361. 14.4 Indecency 252
  362. 14.4.1 Pornography Versus Obscenity 252
  363. 14.4.2 Protecting Children 252
  364. 14.5 Intellectual Property 253
  365. 14.5.1 Copyright 253
  366. 14.5.2 Consumer Rights 254
  367. 14.6 Defamation 255
  368. 14.6.1 Libel as a Concept 255
  369. 14.6.2 Reckless Disregard 255
  370. 14.6.3 Comment and Criticism 256
  371. Summary: Mass Media Law 257
  372. 15 Mass Media Ethics 258
  373. 15.1 The Difficulty of Ethics 259
  374. 15.1.1 Prescriptive Ethics 259
  375. 15.1.2 Conflict of Duties 260
  376. 15.2 Media Ethics 261
  377. 15.2.1 Media Commitment 261
  378. 15.2.2 Audience Expectations 262
  379. 15.3 Moral Principles 262
  380. 15.3.1 Golden Mean 262
  381. 15.3.2 Reciprocity Principle 263
  382. 15.3.3 Utilitarian Ethics 263
  383. 15.3.4 Pragmatic Ethics 263
  384. 15.3.5 Egalitarian Ethics 264
  385. 15.3.6 Social Responsibility 264
  386. 15.4 Process Versus Outcome 265
  387. 15.4.1 Deontological Ethics 265
  388. 15.4.2 Teleological Ethics 265
  389. 15.4.3 Situational Ethics 267
  390. 15.5 Potter’s Box 267
  391. 15.5.1 Four Quadrants 268
  392. 15.5.2 Intellectual Satisfaction 269
  393. 15.6 Ethics, Law, and Practicality 269
  394. 15.6.1 Ethics and Law 270
  395. 15.6.2 Accepted Practices 270
  396. 15.6.3 Prudence and Ethics 270
  397. 15.6.4 Misrepresentation 270
  398. Summary: Mass Media Ethics 272
  399. Glossary 273
  400. References 280
  401. Credits 285
  402. Index 289
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