Transfer of learning is the effect previous experiences have on the learning of a new skill or performing a skill in a new context. The concept of transfer lays the foundation for all of skill learning. Transfer of learning can be positive, negative, or neutral. Volleyball coaches should be aware of the transfer of learning effect and utilize it to help with teaching new skills to players or teaching already learned skills in new contexts. Positive transfer provides the foundation for teaching skill progression. Once a skill is learned, it can be transferred to new settings, or be the foundation for new skill learning. An example of transfer would be the overhand throwing pattern. Early in a child’s development the correct overhand pattern should be established. This skill can then be applied across different settings and into new sport skills. In volleyball the spike and jump serve both derive from the basic overhand pattern. Ensure that this fundamental skill is acquired at an early age so that positive transfer can occur later in volleyball skill learning. While positive transfer is a powerful tool, coaches should be aware of the role that negative transfer can play as well. Although negative transfer is temporary, it does initially hinder or hurt learning a new skill. In volleyball, an example of this could be when players initially learn to jump off two feet when spiking, and then the coach tries to teach the basic one-foot take-off for the slide. Since negative transfer is not permanent, the coach should be patient as players work on learning similar, but different skills.
My own comments:
When practicing your chosen skill reflect upon previous experience acquired when practicing a similar skill. When doing so, consider whether there was a positive or negative transfer of learning when learning juggling or speed cup stacking. if so, you may discuss how such an experience affected the learning process of your chosen skill. Make sure to provide details.
Principle #5: Action-effect principle (Focus Attention on the Movement Effects Rather Than Just the Movement)
Traditionally, coaches have the athlete focus on the internal movement of skills. For example, feedback statements such as “keep your elbows locked “or “reach and snap” have been the standard performance cues used for teaching the basic skills of volleyball. While such statements focus on the movement action rather than the effects of the movement, the motor learning research suggeststhat focusing on the external effects of movement also has a positive effect on skill acquisition. As volleyball coaches, we should explore the effectiveness of using more external focus of attention when instructing our athletes. For example, when teaching the basic overhand serve, instead of cues such as “keep your elbow high; step forward with the opposite foot, and reach and make contact,” shift the focus to the external effects and see the results. External focus cues might include “see the ball up, step towards the target”, or “hand to ball to the serving zone.” When providing feedback for the basic pass, teaching cues such as “keep the ball low” or “see the pass to the target” might be added with “thumbs together and lock elbows” or “lift with the legs.” An external focus enables the performer not to concentrate so much on the movement itself, but rather on the effect or outcome of the movement and is effective. Coaches always desire to enhance the performance of their athletes. Information from various disciplines such as motor learning can help assist the coach with this process.
My own comments:
When practicing your chosen skill you could apply this PML by shifting from internal to external focus and assess whether the principle was effective. As pointed by Denny (2010), by focusing on external features of the performance learners will pay less attention to the movement itself. This is especially helpful when the learners are moving from the cognitive to the associative state of learning. When reading the content of chapter 12 (Magill & Anderson, 2017), you will realize that learners entering the Fitts and Posner second stage of learning (associative) will focus less and less on the specific movements needed to perform a given skill.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more