I believe that clinical trial should not be used on human because human life has a value, it is not easy to take or destroy someone lifeby clinical trials examination. Clinical trials can be used for animals to make sure that there is no risk at all.
Type of Hook:
Do know that clinical trials could cause serious diseases that need continuation of treatment
Some people argue that should human beings or parts of their bodies should be used for medical research but I disagree with them for several reasons
“The earliest recorded clinical trial is documented in the Old Testament, and describes how Daniel followed a diet of pulses and water instead of the meat and wine recommended by King Nebuchadnezzar II. Daniel remained healthy while his companions became ill, convincing Nebuchadnezzar to change his mind.
The Renaissance surgeon AmbroiseParè conducted the first clinical trial of a novel therapy unintentionally in 1537. He used a concoction of turpentine, rose oil and egg yolk to prevent the infection of battlefield wounds, noting that the new treatment was much more effective that the traditional formula.” Twyman 22/9/04(http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD020948.html)
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Reason one: side effect of clinical trials
Why important: clinical trials have not a clear result. Therefore, clinical trails are still in process. Therefore, people usually don’t want to be in risk situation.
Reason two: exploitation poor people for examination
Why important? Utilization poor people for new drugs means if poor people want to get treatment there is only one way for free treatment in clinical trials this is only one way for getting money or treatment
Reason three: cause new disease
Why important: exam new drugs maybe cause a new disease, which can effect negatively on volunteers Using medical research on human beings Discussion
Refutation of opponent’s argument:
Reason four: medical research companies can take advantage to exploit poorpeople to get them involved in research.
Using medical research on human beings
Using human beings in medical research has a long history. In the past, researchers used to test a new drugs on animals to see how the affection of these drugs and side effect.Using animals instead of human beings because human beings lives have a value and they have their rights to use their body for medical research or not. According to skloot “every human being has an inalienable right to determine what shall be done with his own body. These patients then had a right to know … the content of syringe : and if this knowledge was to cause fear and anxiety or make them frightened, they had a right to be fearful and frightened and thus say no to the experiment”. However, after revolution of knowledge and technology has become high demand to do research on human beings directly instead of animals. Therefore, medical companies and medical research centers have changed their old way, which were used animals for medical research. This subject has made a quantum leap in medical research, but at same time has made a big controversial in medicalmilieus. Some people argue that human beings should be used for medical research, but I disagree with them for several reasons.
The first argument against the idea that human beings should be used for medical research is Uncertainty in the outcome. Particularly, the medical research will test new drugs, which is not sure about the result that will receive after examination. Therefore, the possibility of getting problem in outcome is very high. According toTorrey, T. the risk and benefits of clinical trials (2008)“There may be side effects or outcomes that are unpleasant. They may last only a short time, or they may affect you for the rest of your life”. Wherefore, using animals first in medical research to make sure there is no risk that can cause death or serious injured. So using human beings for medical research is not appropriate idea because it could cause problem that need continuation of treatment.
The second argument which supports should not use human beings for medical research is medical research companies can take advantage to exploit poor people to get them involved in research. According to Susan Perry who made interview with University of Minnesota bioethics professor Dr. Carl Elliott “In a lot of ways, what’s going on now is even worse,” said Elliott. No one apparently died in the Guatemalan trial, he noted, but that wasn’t the case in a clinical trial conducted by the pharmaceutical giant Pfizer during a meningitis outbreak in Nigeria in 1996. Pfizertested an experimental antibiotic, Trovan, on 200 children during that epidemic without, according to the children’s families, proper consent. (The families say they didn’t realize their children were receiving an experimental treatment.) Eleven children died and many more were permanently disabled. (Trovan has been banned in Europe and can be prescribed in the United States only to adults and in limited medical situations.)”Susan Perry 10/14/10 (http://www.minnpost.com/second-opinion/2010/10/too-many-clinical-trials-still-exploit-poor-and-other-vulnerable-people-says-). Therefore, companies, which are looking for improving their business, they will use this way to promote to their business. They will use poor people to do research on them and get advantage of them. The result of this, poor people will lose their right because companies will give them for a free treatment or money. So, using human beings for medical research can open new doors for business to destroy poor people lives and take advantage of them.Furthermore, business can
The third argument that supports idea that should not using human beings for medical research is testing new drugs can cause a new disease. As you know all medicines that people use is containing chemical. Therefore, using these chemical drugs for human bodies can cause harmful to their bodies. Also, human bodies sometime can accept a certain chemical drugs and sometime not. For example, if there is a company wants to experiment for a new drug and the drug is containing a chemical which is not appropriate for human bodies so the result will be death or sickness to the people who are doing this experiment or health problem for entire their lives. The point here is who he going to be responsible of this result.So human beings bodies have not been created for medical research.
All in all human beings lives are very impotent. Medical research has many options to develop their drugs. Today, medical research has a high technology that can use it for their researches. The volunteers who are going to be in experiment, they may have abilities, which they can use to improve their lives. Medical research is not the only way for their lives. Technology can provide new ways to do experiment without using human beings. Medical research can use animals because the system of animals bodies is similar to human bodies so this option can gives medical research opportunity to do their researches without making a big harmful. In addition, medical research can avoid the problems that will face them in future if they do it on human bodies.Using medical research on human beings Discussion
Rebecca L. Skloot(2010)The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks p134
Torrey, T. the risk and benefits of clinical trials (2008) (http://patients.about.com/od/clinicaltrials/a/trialrisksbenes.htm)
Minnpost Susan Perry 10/14/10 (http://www.minnpost.com/second-opinion/2010/10/too-many-clinical-trials-still-exploit-poor-and-other-vulnerable-people-says-).
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